Bilayer graphene, in both its conventional and twisted form, has emerged as a facile platform for exploring topological and correlated phases. In this talk I will review routes for controlling bilayer graphene via twisting, pressure, strain, and proximity-induced spin orbit coupling.
Species-specific differences control cancer risk across orders of magnitude variation in body size and lifespan, e.g., by varying the copy numbers of tumor suppressor genes. It is unclear, however, how different tissues within an organism can control somatic evolution despite being subject to markedly different constraints, but sharing the same genome. Hierarchical differentiation, characteristic of self-renewing tissues, can restrain somatic evolution both by limiting divisional load, thereby reducing mutation accumulation, and by increasing cells’ commitment to differentiation, which can “wash out” mutants. Here, we explore the organization of hierarchical tissues that have evolved to limit their lifetime incidence of cancer. Estimating the likelihood of cancer in the presence of mutations that enhance self-proliferation, we demonstrate that a trade-off exists between mutation accumulation and the strength of washing out. Our results explain differences in the organization of widely different hierarchical tissues, such as colon and blood.
Polymer matrix composites are widely used in our everyday life, thanks to their low density, high specific strength and designable anisotropy, among others. From the matrix point of view, we can talk about thermoset and thermoplastic, while from the fibre reinforcement point of view, we can talk about continuous and short-fibre-reinforced polymer composites. For sustainability, further weight reduction and increased recyclability are key issues: single-polymer composites and thermoplastic polymer composites produced by thermoplastic resin transfer moulding are good solutions.
Page of the Szilárd Leó Colloquium: http://physics.bme.hu/kollokvium