Course title: 
Measurement Techniques
Primary programme: 
Fizikus mérnök BSc
ECTS credits: 
Course type: 
Number of lectures per week: 
Number of practices per week: 
Number of laboratory exercises per week: 
Further knowledge transfer methods: 
The lectures include experimental demonstrations
Responsible lecturer: 
Dr. András Halbritter, university professor, DSc
Course description: 
Voltage and current sources, voltage and current meters. Measurement of resistance, four probe resistance measurement. Operational amplifiers. Voltage amplifier, current amplifier, and comparator circuits. A/D and D/A converters, data acquisition cards. Normal and common mode rejection ratio. Analog and digital oscilloscopes, sampling modes, triggering, waveform measurements, aliasing. Function generators. Suppression of disturbing signals: electrostatic and inductive coupling, grounding and guarding, twisted pairs, thermoelectric power and offset compensation, stray capacitance. Wave propagation in coaxial lines, telegraph equations, wave impedance, reflections at the cable termination. Fourier analysis considering finite temporal window. The role of various window functions: spectral leakage, frequency resolution, amplitude accuracy. The role of finite sampling, sampling theorem. Discrete Fourier transform, and its implementation by the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Spectrum analyzers. Phase sensitive measurements: lock-in amplifiers, phase locked loops. The application of PID control from temperature controllers to scanning probe microscopes. Electronic noise phenomena. The spectral density of noise, and its relation to the current-current correlation function and the Fourier transform of the signal. Thermal noise, the thermal noise limit of current amplifier circuits. Cross correlation noise measurement. Shot noise and 1/f noise. Antialiasing filter. Fundamental measurement units (SI) and their definitions. Measurement standards: atomic clocks, voltage to frequency conversion by the Josephson effect, current to voltage conversion by the quantized Hall effect, current to frequency conversion by electron pump, measurement of mass by Watt balance. Temperature standards. Modern sensors. Magnetic field sensors: inductive, magnetoresitive, spin valve, and Hall sensors, SQUID magnetometers. Distance and position sensors: linear differential transformers, capacitive transducers, LASER and ultrasound-based measurement of distance, LIDAR systems. Temperature sensors: thermocouples, resistance thermometers, thermistors. Light sensors: photo diodes, CCD sensors, CMOS active pixel sensors, bolometers. Measurement of acceleration: MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes, piezoelectric accelerometers. Fundamentals of nuclear measurement technologies. Interactions between electromagnetic radiation, charged particles and atoms of matter that provide the basis for detection. Detector efficiency, energy resolution, dead time, escape and pile-up phenomenon, response function. Basic instruments of electronic signal processing and their characteristic technical properties, analogue-digital conversion.
Reading materials: 
James A. Blackburn: Modern Instrumentation for Scientists and Engineers, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2001, ISBN: 978-0-387-95056-3, DOI: Sh. Kogan: Electronic Noise and Fluctuations in Solids, Cambridge University Press (1996), ISBN: 9780511551666, DOI: G. F. Knoll, Radiation detection and measurement, 4th Edition, Wiley, 2010, ISBN: 978-0-470-13148-0 C. Rauscher,
List of competences: 
Please find the detailed list, as quoted from the Hungarian training and outcome requirements of the Physicist Engineer program, in the Hungarian version of the course description.